In about 1780, Britain begins what is now known as the industrial revolution (Mathias, 14-16). Later, Queen Victoria takes the throne in 1837 marking a rough beginning for the Victorian Era (Royal Household). Therefore, Britain's industrial revolution was well underway when the Victorian Era began. The industrial revolution promoted a great migration of people from the country and farming to cities and factory work. A middle class emerged in British society as the industrial revolution continued to boom. This migration and class change opened up the re-evaluation and complexity of masculinity and femininity.