Annontated Bibliography

Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Masculinity. Ithaca:
Cornell UP, 1995. Print. Male intellectual labor incorporates more feminine roles and duties. Victorian writers represent models of masculine id in gentlemen, prophets, dandy, priests, and soldiers. Adams also introduces the complexity of male homosexuality in Victorian discourse.

Auerbach, Nina. "The Rise of the Fallen Woman." Nineteenth- Century Fiction 35.1 
           (Jun. 1980): 29-52. JSTOR. Web. Discusses fallen women in society and their
           status. Also presents fallen women using several primary literary works.

Basch, Francoise. Relative Creatures: Victorian Women in Society and the Novel. Trans.
           Anthony Rudolf. New York: Shocken, 1974. Print. Considers three types of Victorian
           women in fiction: wife-mother image, single woman, and the impure woman. Hits on 
            the similarities and differences in representation and the way they are talked about.   

Danahay, Martin A. Gender at Work in Victorian Culture: Literature, Art and Masculinity.
Burlington: Ashgate, 2005. Print. This book defines 'men' and 'work' in British Victorian
society and culture. It also evaluates the relationship and complex contradictions between
'work' and 'men'.

Lane, Christopher. The Burdens of Intimacy: Psychoanalysis & Victorian Masculinity.
Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago, 1999. Print. Lane evaluates the unconscious and conscious
desires and conflicts of male protagonists in Victorian novels. He primarily evaluates the psychological conflicts for men through theorists like Freud and Foucault.
Ledger, Sally. The New Woman: Fiction and Feminism at the Fin De Siecle. New York:
            Manchester UP, 1997. Print. Focuses on the new woman through fictional 
            representations and lived experiences. Contributes to and helps understanding of 
            the woman question. Focuses on late Victorian and early Modernism.

Machann, Clinton. Masculinity in Four Victorian Epics: A Darwinist Reading. Farnham:
Ashgate Group, 2010. Print. Machann evaluates Victorian masculinity through
Tennyson’s Idylls of the King, Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Aurora Leigh, Arthur
Hugh Clough’s Amours de Voyage, and Robert Browning’s The Ring and the Book.
He argues that concepts of masculinity are highly connected with human themes  
and these authors develop their epic narratives including many biological and cultural 

Newman, Beth. Subjects on Display: Psychoanalysis, Social Expectation, and Victorian
           Femininity. Athens: Ohio UP, 2004. Print. Uses psychoanalytic theory to evaluate the  
           new, modern woman. Also introduces complexity of wanting to be seen by others to the  
           ideal of the modest woman.

Norton, Caroline, and Joan Huddleston. English Laws for Women in the 19th Century
          Chicago: Academy Chicago,  2011. Print. Caroline Norton shares her personal 
          experiences of her marriage and divorce. It is a cry for justice as women are 
          treated so unfairly in the court system.

Pavenick, Alexis. ""Post Equitem Sedet Atra Cura": How the Diverse Codes of Victorian  
            Masculinity Create Masculine Bebility in Victorian Novels." Diss. University of 
            California, Riverside, 2005. Print. The energy of the male mind and body needed for
            performance in middle-class Victorian England. Unstable definitions of 'successful'
            masculinity creates more stress, fear, and subjectivity. Ultimately, it is both emotionally
            and physically challenging to be a Victorian middle-class man.

Reynolds, Kimberley, and Nicola Humble. Victorian Heroines: Representations of Femininity 
           in Nineteenth-century Literature and Art. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf,
           1993. Print. Examines femininity and sexuality from different perspectives and official  
           discourses. Revise current models of looking at Victorian sexuality to look for  
           commonalities of problems between men and women.

Shanley, Mary L. Feminism, Marriage, and the Law in Victorian England. Princeton: 
            Princeton UP, 1993. Google Books. Great overview and introduction to Caroline 
            Norton's situation and marriage frustrations. I may use it as a general source, but 
            primarily intend to use it to find other primary sources concerning the Norton's trials.
            It also points me in the direction of several other primary sources of women in the 
            time speaking out against the laws.

Sloan, Jay D. Spheral Change: D.G. Rossetti Envisioning an Alternative Victorian
Masculinity. Diss. Marquette University, 1999. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1999. Print. Sloan closely studies Rossetti’s works related to Victorian masculinity. He also discusses the cultural influence that surrounded Rossetti’s works. Sloan attempts to explain the complexities that make Rossetti such an elusive figure for readers and critics.

Smith, Andrew. Victorian Demons: Medicine, Masculinity, and the Gothic at the 
           Fin-De-Siecle. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2004. Print. Each chapter is a 
           narrative about masculinity: Wilde, Stoker, Sir Henry Irving, Doyle, Stevenson, 
           etc. This book shows the history of a middle class- white, male, cultural and 
           intellectual elite- and how their power changed.

Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence. Moulding the Female Body in Victorian Fairy Tales and 
           Sensation Novels. Burlington: Ashgate, 2007. Print. Explores mid-Victorian 
           constructions of femininity using folk tales or fairy tales. Female main characters 
           brought out tensions and contradictions in Victorian society.

Tosh, John. A Man's Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England.
New Haven: Yale UP, 2007. Print. Tosh discusses the different men and women roles
throughout the time period. He also discusses how the relationships between  
masculinity and femininity, or husband and wife, changes. Men and the masculinity  
ideal were strongly affected by society and the feminine ideal.

Tosh, John. "What Should Historians Do with Masculinity? Reflections on Nineteenth- 
           Century Britain." History Workshop 38 (1994): 179-202. JSTOR. Web. 
           <>. Tosh defends why we should discuss the
           male role in a gender conversation that has been dominantly focused on women. He also
           explores those roles and discusses the nature of masculine hierarchies.

Voskuil, Lynn M. "Acs of Madness: Lady Audley and the Meanings of Victorian Femininity."  
           Feminist Studies 27.3 (Fall 2001): 611. EBSCOhost. Web. Discusses cultural 
           construction of femininity in England. Defines authenticity and explores the different 
           aspects of authenticity.

Zedner, L. Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991. 
            Print. Looks at female criminals and the role of gender in determining criminality. 
            Also analyzes the relationship between crime and society's views and values.

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